Fluoride discovery could lead to much longer-lasting EV batteries

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Purdue

Researchers have announced a new battery breakthrough that focuses on the negative. Rather than using lithium, the most electro-positive element on the periodic table, they used flouride, the most electro-negative. It can store more energy than its lithium doppelgänger, but until now, batteries needed to run hot at 150 degrees Celcius or more. Honda, Caltech and NASA scientists discovered a way to make it work at room temperature, which could eventually yield more energy dense and environmentally safe batteries for EVs and other devices.

Fluoride-ion batteries essentially work in the opposite direction of lithium-ion cells, attracting electrons instead of shedding them. Flouride (the ionized version of fluorine) is an interesting battery material because it has a low atomic weight and very high capacity to store electrons. However, to do that, you have to dissolve the fluoride ions into an electrolyte, and researchers have found that it only works with solid electrolytes heated to high temperatures.

To get around that, the Honda/NASA/Caltech team created a liquid electrolyte called BTFE that allows fluoride to dissolve at room temperature. With two positively-charged regions, it exploits the “opposites attract” principal, reacting strongly to negatively-charged fluoride.

The interaction between your kick and bassline is also crucial. Mixing them well is that much more challenging if the kick and bass occupy exactly the same space.

Keep the frequency spectrum in mind as you choose your kick samples and start thinking about your mix before it even starts.

4. Expect to layer

In many cases you won’t be able to get the perfect kick for your track with just a single kick sample.

Don’t be afraid to enhance your original sample with other sounds. Layering samples is a powerful technique.

If you find yourself using radical EQ curves just to get more of a certain sonic quality into your kick, try layering another sample that has the character you’re looking for to get it.

In this example I’ve layered several kick samples together in an Ableton Live Drum Rack.

I like the attack of the first kick but it doesn’t have quite the low end I need. It’s also a bit dry for the track. To fix it I’ve layered a beefier sub bass kick with the just ambience from another kick sample.

With all three together, I’m getting exactly what I want for the kick drum on this track.

Chances are layering will sound more transparent than invasive EQ.

Here’s some other sounds to consider layering with your kicks:

  • A cracking snare to add some initial attack
  • A clap to add some initial smack to your kick
  • An 808 style sine wave bass to give your kicks a nice booming tail

5. Tune first

Before you make a decision on the right kick sample make sure you’ve taken the time to tune it for your song.

If the fundamental frequency of the kick is at odds with the rest of your song, you’ll have trouble knowing whether it really works.

If the fundamental frequency of the kick is at odds with the rest of your song, you’ll have trouble knowing whether it really works.

Use your sampler plugin’s transpose function to make sure your kick sample is in tune.

You don’t have to hard-tune the kick’s fundamental to the song’s tonic, but try to explore options that enhance their harmonic relationship.

Listening in context of the rest of your mix is really important here—tweak until it sounds right!

6. Level match




As always when comparing two audio files, make sure you match the levels before you decide.

Small differences in level have a surprisingly strong effect on how we perceive the strengths of one sound over another.

You don’t want to accidentally miss the right kick just because a slightly louder one sounded more lively when you auditioned it.

Watch your meters carefully as you level match so you can be sure you’re making a fair comparison between 2 kick samples.

7. Don’t be afraid to start over

Don’t keep struggling with a sample that’s not quite right just because you’ve already spent an hour on it.

Don’t keep struggling with a sample that’s not quite right just because you’ve already spent an hour on it.

It’s easy to rationalize your choices when when you’ve gotten attached to them over time. But sometimes the only way to move forward is to go back to the beginning.

Starting from scratch can actually give you a fresh perspective on the whole song. So even if it hurts, try not to get too dedicated to a kick that’s just not working.

Hot Tip: Instead of starting with just one kick sample, set aside a small batch of 5-10 that might work. This way, you’ll have a better backup plan if your first option isn’t working.

Sick Kicks

“Get it right at the source” is a common phrase in mixing for a good reason. If you don’t have the right raw materials, no amount of fancy mixing techniques will give you the results you want.

That’s why it’s important to choose the right kick sample as you build your tracks. It doesn’t have to be difficult if you keep the these tips in mind.

Now that you know how to choose a great kick, get back to your samples folder and find the perfect kick!

from LANDR Blog http://bit.ly/2E6s0h9
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Here’s what happens to your brain when you get blackout drunk

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Saturday, 12 pm. The light burns. Your head throbs. And you have no recollection of how you got back home. Don’t worry, you’re not alone. More than half of college students experience blackouts, according to several studies. And let’s be clear. Blacking out doesn’t mean passing out. You were probably awake and aware the entire night. So then, where did all those memories go?

Let’s rewind to Friday night. Normally, whenever you have an experience — like a conversation — a part of your brain called the prefrontal lobe stores that information in short-term memory. Then, another part of your brain called the hippocampus weaves those experiences together so they can be stored away as long-term memories. So the next day you remember "the party" as a whole instead of "smell of sweat," "house music," "Jen was there."

But here’s the key part: storing these episodes in long-term memory requires special neurotransmitters. But your liquor shots prevent the neurotransmitters from working properly. So, instead of remembering the party, all you have is an incomplete or even empty file.

And the amount of alcohol in your system at the time influences how much you remember. Let’s say you’re a 73 kg adult man. And you’ve done eight shots in one hour. Your blood alcohol content is probably around 0.2% by this point — more than twice the legal limit for driving a car. And your brain may still be able to store some memories. So you end up with "islands" of memories separated by missing sections. That’s called a fragmentary blackout, aka a "greyout" or "brownout". But if you keep pounding those shots, it gets worse. Within the next half hour, you pound back another four shots. Now your blood alcohol content hits around 0.3%, and your hippocampus goes dark. And full amnesia sets in. This is called an en bloc blackout. And once you wake up, that entire night could be blank. Push your BAC much higher than that and…you might die.

And yet…your friends might not even realize you’re in the middle of a blackout, since the alcohol didn’t "delete" your long-term memories already safe in storage before the night began. So you can still carry on conversations and behave more or less like a typical person. To an extent. Blackouts aside, alcohol can still interfere with other regions of your brain including those responsible for reasoning and decision-making.

So during blackouts, people have crashed cars gotten into fights and committed — or been the victims of — sexual assaults. They just might not remember it.

That being said, not everyone gets blackouts. Your sex, body weight, and family history all play a roll. So that could explain why your friends recall the entire night despite downing just as much tequila. But it won’t save them from a wicked hangover the next morning.

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