Diet Soda And Artificially Sweetened Drinks Linked To Strokes, Heart Attacks, Dementia And Diabetes Says Major Study

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Today’s thing that you love that turns out will kill you is… *spins wheel* …diet soda! That’s right, all this time you thought you were doing the right thing by cutting out sugars and calories out of your diet, it now turns out that diet soda and artificially sweetened drinks can increase dangerous health hazards such as strokes, heart attacks, dementia, and diabetes according to a major study.

A study by the American Heart Association and American Stroke Association examined data from 81,714 women, ages 50 to 79, between 1993 and 1998. The study tracked the health and lifestyle of the participants for 12 years. The study found that women who consumed two or more artificially sweetened beverages such as diet soda each day were 31 percent more likely to have a clot-based stroke, 29 percent were more likely to have heart disease, and 16 percent were more likely to die from any cause than women who drank diet beverages such as artificially sweetened fruit juices less than once a week or not at all. The study adjusted the results for risk factors such as age, high blood pressure, and smoking.

The study found links of diet drinks with an increase in the risk of a stroke caused by a blocked artery, especially small arteries. The risks increased dramatically if the women were African-American and doubled for obese women.

“Previous studies have focused on the bigger picture of cardiovascular disease,” said Dr. Yasmin Mossavar-Rahmani, lead author of the study by the American Heart Association and American Stroke Association. “Our study focused on the most common type of stroke, ischemic stroke and its subtypes, one of which was small-vessel blockage. The other interesting thing about our study is that we looked at who is more vulnerable.”

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Mossaver-Rahmani, associate professor of clinical epidemiology and population health at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, admitted that the study was not conclusive enough to pinpoint which drinks or sweeteners were causing the health problems. “We don’t know specifically what types of artificially sweetened beverages they were consuming, so we don’t know which artificial sweeteners may be harmful and which may be harmless.”

There was another study from 2017 that came to the same results that artificially sweetened beverages could be dangerous. In that study of 2,888 adults older than 45 and 1,484 adults older than 60, researchers discovered a link between the consumption of diet drinks and increased rates of strokes and dementia. Those who drank at least one diet drink per day were nearly three times more likely to suffer a stroke or develop dementia than those who didn’t drink any at all.

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A 2014 study found that people over 65 who drank diet drinks were more likely to gain weight than those who didn’t. Over the span of nine years, diet beverage drinkers saw their waists jump over three inches compared to those who didn’t indulge in artificially sweetened beverages. Other studies have linked cancer, diabetes, and weight gain in laboratory animals to sweeteners such as aspartame, saccharin, and sucralose, but the findings were not directly linked to humans.

There was no reason given as to why diet beverages were linked to these worrying health issues, but many believe that artificial sweeteners negatively affect metabolism. A study by the Medical College of Wisconsin and Marquette University last year linked artificial sweeteners to obesity and diabetes. The study said that sweeteners change how the body processes fat and uses energy.

Americans are projected to drink over 3 billion gallons of diet sodas, according to data from the Beverage Marketing Corporation. The safe bet for a no sugar, low-calorie beverage is still to drink water, seltzer water or unsweetened teas.

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What if Microsoft made a smartphone 15 years before Apple did?

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The year is, well 1995, and Windows has just released an operating system that defines the company’s future, and pretty much the future of computing too. I’m talking about the extremely revolutionary (for its time) Windows 95. The graphical user interface based software spread like wildfire, becoming arguably the first professionally and personally used OS for Microsoft. Just for a second imagine if the past were different. If mobile computing devices did exist in 1995, and Microsoft beat Apple to the first smartphone (technically). The WinPhone 95 phone is a great piece of alternative-history that explores the idea of technology taking an unexplored path.

Created by designer Henrique Perticarati, the phone is a brilliant insight into Microsoft’s hardware and software. It, for starters, completely ports Microsoft’s Windows 95 onto the smartphone, bringing a desktop experience to a handheld device. The screen isn’t a touchscreen (the history isn’t THAT alternative), but it does feature a trackball at its base that you can use to navigate through the phone’s OS, with left and right click buttons right below it. (I wonder how one would type on this thing)

The WinPhone 95 phone does a shoutout to all the connector technologies of the past. It has what I assume is a 12v DC port for charging, boasts of not one but TWO jacks on the top (for your mic, and your headphones), and even has a, wait for it, VGA port for a display, and a Parallel port for a printer! Why would you need a printer or an external display, you say? Well, that’s because the WinPhone 95 phone packs a 1.2 megapixel camera on its back, making it arguably the first cellphone to have a camera on it… you know, if it existed. Also armed with a big, clunky, adorable volume switch, a turbo and hard-reset button, and even your Power and CPU LEDs (remember the two blinky lights on your desktop?), the WinPhone 95 is a great look at a phone that never happened and never even was on Microsoft’s agenda… but it’s worth imagining. What if the WinPhone 95 phone DID exist. How would that influence the future of smartphones. Would we see Java and Symbian? Or Android and iOS? Or would Microsoft be the reigning king of all operating systems??

Designer: Henrique Perticarati

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The 52 Best Audio Interfaces on the Market

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Audio interfaces are essential tools for modern music production.

Every sound that goes in or out of your DAW has to pass through your interface to get where it’s going.

But there are more audio interfaces on the market than ever before. Knowing what’s out there is getting harder and harder.

In this article you’ll get all the key details for the 52 best audio interfaces available today.




Apogee



Arturia



Audient



Behringer



Focusrite



M-Audio



MOTU



Native Instruments



Presonus



RME



Steinberg



TASCAM



Universal Audio



ZOOM

How to use this guide

Today’s audio interfaces are extremely versatile tools.

To make sense of it all, we’ve listed each interface by its most important features: connection type, total number of inputs and outputs and price. 

Audio interfaces have all kinds of connectivity options.

If you need an overview of the different kinds of I/O, or what they mean for your workflow, check out our guide to How to Choose an Audio Interface for Your Home Studio.

The first number you’ll see in the “I/O” section is the total.

The inputs are written to the left of the slash and the outputs to the right.

That means an interface with 12 inputs and 8 outputs would be written “12/8.”

Following that you’ll see a breakdown of the different kinds of I/O connections available.

If you’re interested in a particular brand or interface, use the table of contents to go directly to the product you’re looking for.

With that out of way, here’s the interfaces!

Apogee

Apogee Duet

Apogee’s classic Apple-computer styled interface was the one of the first compact interfaces to bring rackmount quality conversion to the portable format.

It’s single rotary encoder control scheme had a massive impact on interface design for its ease of use.

Built with quality and simplicity in mind, the Duet’s I/O suite offers only analog I/O, headphone output and MIDI over USB.

Connection Type: USB 2.0

I/O: 2/4 (2x mic/line/inst in,  2x line out, 1x headphone out), MIDI (over USB)

Street Price: $649 USD

Apogee Quartet

Quartet is the Duet’s big brother. Combining additional analog I/O and digital connectivity with the same high quality onboard preamps and conversion as the Duet, Quartet is a great choice for medium track counts and flexibility.

Connection Type: USB 2.0

I/O:  12×8 (4x mic/line/inst, 8x optical in, 6x line out, 1x headphone out) MIDI I/O (over USB), Wordclock (out only)

Street Price: $1495 USD

Apogee Element

Element is Apogee’s newest line of interfaces. Designed to be simple and effective without unnecessary features, the Element series combines a fast Thunderbolt connection with Apogee’s renowned preamp and converter design.

Element 24

Connection Type: Thunderbolt

I/O: 10/12 (2x mic/line/inst in, 2x line out, 1x headphone out, 8x Optical I/O) Wordclock I/O

Street Price: $549 USD

Element 46

Connection Type: Thunderbolt

I/O: 12/14 (4x mic/line/inst in, 2x line out, 2x headphone out, 8x Optical I/O) Wordclock I/O

Street Price: $895 USD

Element 88

Connection Type: Thunderbolt

I/O: 16/16 (4x mic/line in/inst in, 4x mic/line in, 4x line out, 2x headphone out, 8x Optical I/O), Wordclock I/O)

Street Price: $1495 USD

Arturia

Arturia Audiofuse

Arturia’s Audiofuse has an impressive amount of connectivity. If it’s possible to plug it to an interface, the Audiofuse has a port for it somewhere on its compact enclosure. These extensive options make it highly versatile for studio use.

Connection Type: USB 2.0

I/O: 14/14 (2x mic/line/inst in, 2x phono in, 4x line out, 2x headphone out, 8x optical I/O 2x S/PDIF I/O), MIDI I/O  (⅛”TRS), USB hub,

Street Price: $599 USD

Audient

Audient Sono

Sono is a brand new entry to Audient’s interface line. Aimed at guitarists, Sono features a 12AX7 driven tube amp style preamp and onboard power amp and cabinet modelling from Two Notes.

Connection Type: USB 2.0

I/O: 10/4 (2x mic/line, 1x instrument in, 8 Optical in, 2x line out 1x headphone out 1x reamp out)

Street Price: $449 USD

Audient iD

Audient’s iD series is another popular range of desktop interfaces. Audient’s large-format console and AD/DA expertise drive the technology behind the iD range. The iD form factor is compact and perfect for taking on the road.

Audient iD4

Connection Type: USB 2.0

I/O: 2/2 (1x mic/line in 1x instrument in, 2x line/headphone out)

Street Price: $199 USD

Audient iD14

Connection Type: USB 2.0

I/O: 10/4 (2x mic/line in, 1x instrument in, 8x optical in, 2x line out, 1x headphone out)

Street Price: $299 USD

Audient iD22

Connection Type: USB 2.0

I/O: 10/6 (2x mic/line in, 1x instrument in, 4x line out 1x headphone out, 8x optical I/O)

Street Price: $499 USD

Audient iD44

Connection Type: USB 2.0

I/O: 20 / 24 (4x mic/line, 2x instrument in, 2x line out 2x headphone out, 16x optical I/O)

Street Price: $699 USD

Behringer

Behringer U-PHORIA

Behringer’s UMC line of interface’s come at an impressively low price point for their feature set. Available in a range of I/O configurations, UMC interfaces offer good performance without breaking the bank.

Behringer UM2

Connection Type: USB

I/O: 2/2 (1x mic/line in 1x instrument in, 2x RCA/headphone out)

Street Price: $39.99 USD

Behringer UMC22

Connection Type: USB

I/O: 2/2 (1x mic/line in 1x instrument in, 2x line/headphone out)

Street Price: $59.99 USD

Behringer UMC202HD

Connection Type: USB

I/O: 2/2 (2x mic/line/inst in, 2x line/headphone out)

Street Price: $99.99 USD

Behringer UMC204HD

Connection Type: USB 2.0

I/O: 2/4 (2x mic/line/inst in, 2x line out, 1x headphone out, 4x RCA out), MIDI I/O

Street Price: $129.99 USD

Behringer UMC404HD

Connection Type: USB 2.0

I/O: 4/4 (4 mic/line/inst in, 2x line/RCA, 2x headphone out) MIDI I/O

Street Price: $149.99 USD

Behringer UMC1820

Connection Type: USB 2.0

I/O: 18/20 (8 mic/line/inst in, 10x line out, 2x headphone out 8x optical/SPDIF I/O), MIDI I/O

Street Price: $279.99 USD

Focusrite

Focusrite Scarlett

Focusrite’s inexpensive but capable Scarlett series has a strong following.

Scarlett devices come in all shapes in sizes from the single channel Solo to the studio-ready 18i20.

All Focusrite interfaces come bundled with an impressive selection of software including Ableton Live Lite, Pro Tools First, and access to Focusrite’s Plugin Collective program which feature tools and effects from top manufacturers.

Focusrite Scarlett Solo

Connection Type: USB

I/O: 2/2 (1x mic, 1x instrument/line, 2xRCA/headphone out)

Street Price: $109.99 USD

Focusrite Scarlett 2i2

Connection Type: USB 2.0

I/O: 2/2 (2x mic/line/inst in, 2x line/headphone out)

Street Price: $159.99 USD

Focusrite Scarlett 2i4

Connection Type: USB 2.0

I/O: 2/4 (2x mic/line/inst in, 2x line out, 4x RCA out, 1x headphone out) MIDI I/O

Street Price: $199.99 USD

Focusrite Scarlett 6i6

Connection Type: USB 2.0

I/O: 6/6 (2x mic/line/inst in, 4x line out, 2x headphone out, 2x S/PDIF I/O), MIDI I/O

Street Price: $269.99 USD

Focusrite Scarlett 18i8

Connection Type: USB 2.0

I/O: 18/8 (2x mic/line/inst in 2x mic/line in, 4x line in, 8x optical in, 2x line out, 2x headphone out, 2x S/PDIF I/O), MIDI I/O

Street Price: $379.99 USD

Focusrite Scarlett 18i20

Connection Type: USB 2.0

I/O: 18/20 (2x mic/line/inst in, 6x mic/line in, 8x optical in, 10x line out, 2x headphone out, 8x Optical I/O 2x S/PDIF I/O), MIDI I/O, Wordclock Out

Street Price: $549.99 USD

Focusrite Clarett

The Clarett range is a step up from Scarlett in terms of sonic performance, with higher quality components throughout the analog and digital signal paths.

Clarrett interfaces are available with USB 2.0 or Thunderbolt architecture for ultra-low latency and maximum throughput.

Focusrite Clarett 2pre

Connection Type: USB 2.0/Thunderbolt

I/O: 10/4 (2x mic/line/inst in, 8x optical in, 4x line out), MIDI I/O

Street Price: $439.99 USD

Focusrite Clarett 4pre

Connection Type: USB 2.0/Thunderbolt

I/O: 18/8 (2x mic/line/inst in 2x mic/line in, 4x line in, 8x optical in, 4x line out 2x S/PDIF I/O), MIDI I/O

Street Price: $659.99 USD

Focusrite Clarett 8pre

Connection Type: USB 2.0/Thunderbolt

I/O: 18/20 (2x mic/line/inst 6x mic/line/inst in, 10x line out, 2x headphone out, 8x optical I/O 2x S/PDIF I/O), MIDI I/O, Wordclock out

Street Price: $869.99 USD

M-Audio

M-Audio M-Track

M-Audio has been a major player in the audio interface arena since Avid acquired Digidesign’s influential Mbox hardware brand.

In the early days of digital home recording, if you wanted to use Pro Tools, Mbox was essentially your only option.

Today the Mbox  has been succeeded by the M-Track line which comes bundled with Pro Tools First and a bundle of entry-level Waves plugins

M-Audio M-Track 2x2M

Connection Type: USB 2.0

I/O: 2/2 (2x mic/line in, 2x instrument in, 2x line out), MIDI I/O

Street Price: $149 USD

M-Audio M-Track 8x4M

Connection Type: USB 2.0

I/O: 8/4 (4x mic/line in, 2x line in, 2x instrument in, 4x line out), MIDI I/O (⅛” TRS)

Street Price: $299 USD

M-Audio M-Track Eight

Connection Type: USB 2.0

I/O: 8/8 (8x mic/line in, 2x inst in, 8x line out, 2x headphone out)

Street price: $399 USD

MOTU

MOTU MicroBook IIc

MOTU is another manufacturer that’s been around since the early days of digital audio. Their rack MIDI interfaces are a staple of large format studios everywhere.

MOTU produces a huge range of interface products that combine solid AD/DA conversion and build quality with a powerful DSP environment.

Connection Type: USB 2.0

I/O: 4/6 (1x mic in, 1x instrument in, 2x line in, 1x ⅛” TRS, 2x line out, 2x ⅛” TRS line out, S/PDIF out)

Street Price: $249 USD

MOTU Track 16

Connection Type: USB 2.0/Firewire 400

I/O: 16/14 (2x XLR in, 2x instrument in, 2x line in, 4x line out, 2x headphone out, 8x optical I/O)

Street Price: $549 USD

MOTU 4pre

Connection Type: USB 2.0/Firewire 400

I/O: 6/6 (2x mic/line, 2x mic/inst, 4x line out, 2x headphone out, S/PDIF I/O)

Street Price: $449 USD

Native Instruments

NI Komplete Audio 6

Komplete Audio 6 was one of the first products in the Native Instruments hardware lineup.

With a capable feature-set, Komplete Audio offers bundled NI software to get you started creating with their popular synths, samples and effects right away.

Connection Type: USB 2.0

I/O: 6/6 (2x mic/line, 2x mic/inst, 4x line out, S/PDIF I/O)

Street Price: $239 USD

Presonus

Presonus AudioBox

Presonus is a major player in the interface industry that caters to all budgets.

AudioBox USB 96 is their simplest, most cost-effective audio interface. 

Connection Type: USB 2.0

I/O: 2/2 (2x mic/inst, 2x line out, 1x headphone out), MIDI I/O

Street Price: $99.95 USD

Presonus Studio

The Studio Series is Presonus’ intermediate-level range of interfaces. With great conversion quality and an impressive feature set, the Studio Series comes bundled with Presonus’ Studio One Artist DAW software and Studio Magic Plugin Suite.

The newly announced “c” models sport the forward looking USB-C port for modern connectivity

Presonus Studio 2|4

Connection Type: USB 2.0

I/O: 2/2 (2x mic/line/inst, 2x line out, 1x headphone out), MIDI I/O

Street Price: $149.95 USD

Presonus Studio 2|6

Connection Type: USB 2.0

I/O: 2/4 (2x mic/line/inst, 4x line out, 1x headphone out), MIDI I/O

Street Price: $174.95 USD

Presonus Studio 6|8

Connection Type: USB 2.0

I/O: 6/6 (2x mic/line/inst in 2x mic/line in, 4x line out, 1x headphone out, 2x SP/DIF), MIDI I/O (via breakout cable)

Street Price: $249.95 USD

Presonus Studio 1810

Connection Type: USB 2.0

I/O: 18/8 (2x mic/line/inst 2x mic/line, 4x line in, 8x optical in, 6x line out, 2x headphone out, 2x S/PDIF I/O), MIDI I/O.

Street Price: $299.95 USD

Presonus Studio 1824

Connection Type: USB 2.0

I/O: 18/18 (2x mic/inst/line in, 6x mic/line in, 10 line out, 8x optical I/O, 2x S/PDIF I/O), MIDI I/O, Wordclock out

Street Price: $399.95 USD

RME

RME Babyface Pro

German manufacturer RME’s “-face” line of USB and Firewire interfaces are highly respected audio tools. The Babyface Pro shares it’s design inspiration and desktop form factor with the Duet and offers extended connectivity with access to RME’s TotalMix DSP environment.

Connection Type: USB 2.0

I/O: 12/12 (2x mic in, 2x /inst/line in, 2x line out, 2x headphone out, 8x optical I/O,), MIDI I/O (via breakout cable),

Street Price: $749 USD

Steinberg

Steinberg UR-RT

Designers of the popular Cubase and Nuendo DAW software, Steinberg has entered the hardware game with interfaces of its own.

UR-RT2 and UR-RT4 are versatile interfaces with custom wound Rupert Neve input transformers switchable at the preamp stage.

Steinberg UR-RT2

Connection Type: USB 2.0

I/O: 4/2 (2x mic/line/inst in, 2x line in),   

Street Price: $349.99 USD

Steinberg UR-RT4

Connection Type: USB 2.0

I/O: 6/4 (2x mic/inst, 2x. mic/line, 2x line in, 6x line out, 2x headphone out) MIDI I/O

Street Price: $599.99 USD

TASCAM

TASCAM US

Magnetic tape legend TASCAM produces excellent digital recording tools.

The well designed US line of interfaces are yet another fully-featured choice with quality conversion and preamps onboard.

TASCAM US-1×2

Connection Type: USB 2.0

I/O: 2/2 (1x mic in, 1x line/inst in, headphone out, 2x RCA I/O)

Street Price: $119.99 USD

TASCAM US-2×2

Connection Type: USB 2.0

I/O: 2/2 (2x mic/line/inst in, 2x line out, 1x headphone out) MIDI I/O

Street Price: $179.99 USD

TASCAM US-4×4

Connection Type: USB 2.0

I/O: 2/2 (4x mic in, 2x line/inst in, 2x line in, 4x line out, 2x headphone out), MIDI I/O

Street Price: $229.99 USD

TASCAM US-16×08

Connection Type: USB 2.0

I/O: 16/8 (8 mic in, 2x inst/line in, 6 line in, 8 line out) MIDI I/O

Street Price: $299.99 USD

Universal Audio

Universal Audio Arrow

Arrow is Universal Audio’s newest, most compact interface. There’s never been an easier way to get into the UA hardware ecosystem and take advantage of the superbly modelled analog plugins.

Connection Type: Thunderbolt 3

I/O: 2/4 (2x mic/line in, 1x instrument in, 2x line our, 1x headphone out).  

Street Price: $499 USD

Universal Audio Apollo

Apollo is Universal Audio’s flagship line of audio interfaces.

With a broad range of configuration and connectivity options, real-time UAD Console environment, Unison preamp modelling and industry standard UAD-2 plugins, Apollo is the interface to beat for features and performance.

Universal Audio Apollo Twin MkII

Connection Type: Thunderbolt 2

I/O: 10/ 6 (2x mic/line in, 1x inst in, 8x optical in, 4x line out, 2x headphone)

Street Price: $699 USD

Zoom

Zoom UAC/TAC

Zoom’s USB 3.0 and Thunderbolt interfaces combine great connectivity with incredibly low latency figures at a very reasonable price.

The UAC or TAC interfaces are great options if speed is a top concern.

Zoom UAC-2

Connection Type: USB 3.0

I/O: 2/2 (2x mic/line/inst in, 2x line out, 1x headphone) MIDI I/O

Street Price: $249.99 USD

Zoom TAC-2R

Connection Type: Thunderbolt

I/O: 2/2 (2x mic/line/inst in, 2x line out 1x, headphone) MIDI I/O

Street Price: $349.99 USD

Zoom UAC-8

Connection Type: USB 3.0

I/O: 18/20 (2x mic/line/inst, 6x mic/line, 10x line out, 8x optical I/O, 2x S/PDIF I/O), MIDI I/O, Wordclock I/O

Street Price: $599.99 USD

Zoom TAC-8

Connection Type: Thunderbolt

I/O: 18/20 (2x mic/line/inst, 6x mic/line, 10x line out, 8x optical I/O, 2x S/PDIF I/O) MIDI I/O Wordclock I/O

Street Price: $649.99 USD

Interface value

There’s a lot of choices out there, but everyone needs an interface to get started with digital audio.

Even though it’s important, it doesn’t have to be scary.

Now that you know the different interfaces that are out there, you’ll have a better overview of the which products you’ll be looking at for your choice.

If you still need more help making a decision, head over to How to Choose an Audio Interface for Your Home Studio for more info!

The post The 52 Best Audio Interfaces on the Market appeared first on LANDR Blog.

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Defining the difference between Product & Industrial Design

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Product and Industrial Design are terms that have become interchangeable, especially for those who don’t live and breathe these terms the way we do. Although there are many finer points of distinction between them, the write-up below by Will Gibbons ( Product Designer and Design blogger) simply sums up the similarities and the differences these two fields share. So the next time someone asks you the question of what do you design, do redirect them to this article for better understanding!

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The definition and differentiation of industrial design and product design are debated, confused and sometimes vary given the context in which they’re used. Because many who visit this website may wonder why one term is used rather than the other, we’re going to take a deep dive and hopefully bring some clarity to the topic.

Let’s begin with a macro definition and progress to a micro level. We’ll start with a generic and practical explanation and end up arguing the semantics of the two, which should be fun. Maybe I’ll even ruffle a few feathers along the way. Also, I’ll break up each level of differentiation just to simplify things.

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Micro

For all intents and purposes, industrial design and product design are the same damn thing! A product designer and industrial designer play nearly identical roles professionally and share virtually the same goals. If you’d like to, go ahead and use the titles interchangeably as the general public doesn’t know the difference.

That said, each connotes a different idea of what the designer does. To many, industrial design sounds more technical and engineering-based. Alternatively, product design sounds more straight-forward and simple… one who designs products. Of course, the connotation of each is totally subjective and depends entirely on the previous experiences of the person you’re talking to.

Macro

Now, to draw some distinction, we’ll establish that industrial design is a field of study as well as a career path. Many colleges offer Bachelors and Masters Degrees in industrial design, and when a company wants to hire a designer who graduated from an industrial design program, the employer will advertise an industrial design position. Industrial design programs at schools are often divided into more specialized majors such as automotive, transportation and product design as was the case with the college I attended (CCS). At this level, product design is one of the various occupations an industrial designer may choose to pursue.

Based upon the above, all product designers are industrial designers but not all industrial designers are product designers.

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Industrial Design — an Abridged History

Back before many of us were born, objects were hand-crafted and cost much more to produce, which prevented most people from consuming at the level we do today. The industrialization of production made mass-production possible. Mass-production is how a product can be made in high volume at a low cost through a heavily automated process. Think of Henry Ford’s production line, which allowed his factory to crank out vehicles faster than ever before. The same thing happened to household products such as furniture, ceramics, tools, electronics and appliances. Prior to having a process that allowed for such high-volume production the cost per unit and production time of products didn’t matter much. When the mass-production became the goal, cost-per-unit, production time and efficiency surrounding the entire process became key to offering affordable products to the masses.

The need for engineers to optimize this whole process became clear, but lowering the price of a good wasn’t the only way to make a sale. Norman Bel Gedes is often credited with bringing sleek design to products that didn’t need to be sleek and sexy, but the result was that these beautiful products sold! It wasn’t long before the aesthetics of products were considered as important as function at the mass-production scale. Prior to the industrial design era, designers were artists and craftspeople. Primarily focused on creating quality objects that looked as good as they were built, designers weren’t designing for the masses, but were crafting low-production goods that were very expensive.

Now that mass-produced goods could be made, how do you get people to replace items that still worked just fine with newer versions? Designers filled the role of creating incentives for consumers to buy the new mass-produced products by adding features such as improving ergonomics, aesthetics and functionality. They did this through their knowledge of design. In order to increase sales, companies began hiring industrial designers to continually design new versions of the same products and sell them to customers year after year.

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Product Design — an Abridged History

Alright, so there isn’t really a distinct history of product design, since separating it from industrial design is impossible. Over the years, designers or companies have chosen to use the term ‘product design’ rather than industrial design as it’s slightly more specific than the vast field of industrial design.

As previously mentioned, product design is a specialized field within the broader spectrum of industrial design. product designers are often hired to design everything except for vehicles. Vehicle design (land, air and water) is a field that has its own traditions and practices and often prefers to hire designers who have specialized in automotive or transportation design. This leaves virtually everything else up to product designers. Today, software or digital products as well as services are often in the territory of product designers. In some cases, product design includes a sub-field of specialists called engineering designers. Given the common goals and roles played by the field of industrial design and product design, using one term instead of the other certainly leads to confusion for some. The field of product design and industrial design do overlap and sometimes the distinction between the two isn’t so clear.

I like to think that product designers are responsible for the design of household and consumer products, whereas commercial products are often designed by specialists such as aircrafts, architects and automobiles. I understand though, that there will always be exceptions.

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So What?

Some will think I wasted a whole bunch of words trying to distinguish between the indistinguishable. Perhaps. I just wanted to provide some contest to shed light on exactly why there is often times confusion between the two terms, product design and industrial design. The simplest way to bring clarity to an often ambiguous set of definitions is this:

Industrial design is the profession responsible for elevating function and aesthetics to all things manufactured. Product design is one of many niches within industrial design often defined by the kinds of products it designs. Just like a dentist is a specialist within the larger medical field.


The original write up by Will Gibbons published on Medium can be found here.

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Someone created a $57 button that silently lets your partner know you want sex, and the internet is stunned

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lovesync button kickstarter

  • LoveSync is a device that lets you, with the push of a button, silently and "anonymously" indicate to your partner that you’re in the mood for sex.
  • A fundraising campaign for LoveSync launched Monday on Kickstarter, and the device has already raised more than half of its $7,500 goal.
  • People on social media are roasting the button for its purpose of "summoning" your partner and intent to replace audible consent for sex.

Amazon pioneered the idea of miniature buttons that people press to quickly order household staples like laundry detergent and potato chips. Now, a startup has a button for couples to request another household essential: sex.

On Monday, a Kickstarter campaign introduced the world to LoveSync buttons, designed to help partners signal when they’re in the mood for sex.

LoveSync buttons come in a set — one for each person’s bedside table — so you can press it when you want to indicate to your partner that you want to have sex. If both partners tap their buttons in the same 15-minute "consensus window," both buttons will glow green, and you’ll know the other person is horny too.

Though it’s only a Kickstarter concept at this point, the LoveSync button aims for the elegant design of an Apple product or a Nest thermostat, with "CNC machined steel housing" and a "capacitive touch sensor."

lovesync button kickstarter

The device, the Kickstarter campaign says, is designed to "take the luck out of getting lucky" so you can "make your move with confidence" — so you don’t have to risk initiating sex and getting rejected.

LoveSync’s launch on Kickstarter wasn’t met with entirely positive reactions on social media. People on Twitter skewered several features of the device, as well as its description.

The video on LoveSync’s campaign page says you can push the button "anonymously" — which is puzzling, considering the buttons are advertised as being for a couple.

People also criticized LoveSync’s high price, versus simply asking your partner for sex. The Kickstarter campaign says a set of the LoveSync buttons will cost $57 (unless you nab an early-bird price).

Some also drew similarities between LoveSync and the "nut button" meme, which emerged online in 2016.

The founders are a Cleveland couple named Ryan and Jenn Cmich, who said in a promo video that they lost the "joys of romance" after being married for about 15 years. The buttons, they said, are a solution to an "age-old problem," allowing you to "get your LoveSync on."

As of Tuesday, LoveSync had 84 backers, who had pledged more than $4,000.

LoveSync has until March 13 to reach its $7,500 goal, and the campaign says backers will get their LoveSync buttons in August if it’s successful.

SEE ALSO: Here’s the complete timeline of the feud between Jeff Bezos and the National Enquirer, including the ties to President Trump

Join the conversation about this story »

NOW WATCH: How Apple went from a $1 trillion company to losing over 20% of its share price

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A depression drug that’s been called ‘the most important discovery in half a century’ just got a big step closer to FDA approval (JNJ)

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  • A first-of-its-kind treatment for depression got a big nod on Tuesday from a group of scientists convened by the US Food and Drug Administration.
  • Experts concluded that the drug, called esketamine and inspired by ketamine, is safe and effective and said its benefits outweighed its risks.
  • Their input will play a key role in the FDA’s final approval decision, expected in March.
  • If given the official green light, the drug would be the first novel therapeutic for depression in 35 years.

A drug inspired by ketamine, which has been called "the most important discovery in half a century," is on the cusp of becoming the first new kind of depression medication in 35 years.

Called esketamine and developed by Johnson & Johnson, the drug is a nasal spray designed to treat severe forms of depression that don’t respond to other medications. It’s the chemical mirror image of ketamine and thought to have slightly fewer side effects than the original compound.

On Tuesday, a panel of experts convened by the Food and Drug Administration voted 14-2 in favor of the drug’s effectiveness and 15-2 in favor of its safety. Their recommendation will play a key role in the FDA’s approval decision, expected in March.

Additionally, they voted 14-2 that the drug’s benefits outweighed its risks.

"I think there’s substantial evidence that this could be a game-changer," Steven Meisel, a system director of medication safety with Fairview Health Services who was one of the panel’s 17 voting members, said on Tuesday.

If the FDA approves the drug, it would be the first federally approved depression drug in nearly four decades to work differently than depression medications on the market.

That’s a significant milestone. Depression is the world’s leading cause of poor health and disability, and as many as one in three patients don’t get relief from existing antidepressants.

Analysts are hopeful that Johnson & Johnson’s new drug could help.

"Ultimately, we think [esketamine’s] risk-benefit profile favors approval, especially in a disease paradigm where little options are available," Carter Gould, the executive director of biotech equity research at UBS, wrote in a note circulated last week.

The emerging science on ketamine

columbia midtown ketamine clinic inside

Whether it’s Abilify or Zoloft, almost all antidepressants work by plugging up the places where our brain takes up serotonin, a chemical messenger that plays a key role in our mood.

Ketamine appears to engage a different part of the brain than traditional antidepressants, which is part of the reason it’s been called "the most important discovery in half a century" for mental illness.

The drug’s apparent rapid-fire effects may be especially useful for staunching suicidal thinking in people who are considering taking their own lives, experts say. Ketamine also has long been used to prevent pain, which suggests to clinicians that it’s relatively safe.

"There is nothing approved that gets patients better this fast," Walter S. Dunn, a psychiatrist and assistant clinical professor at the University of California Los Angeles who was also one of the panel’s voting members, said on Tuesday.

But right now, ketamine is neither cheap nor quick to administer. Because it’s given through an IV drip, the process can take 45 minutes to two hours. Each session costs $500 to $750 and is not covered by insurance, because ketamine is approved in the US only for use as an anesthetic. People given ketamine for depression are typically advised to get eight to 12 sessions, bringing the total cost to as much as $9,000.

Ketamine and esketamine also have some negative side effects. The most troublesome, according to analysts and scientists, is the drugs’ tendency to produce what’s known as dissociative — or "out of body" — experiences.

Experts worry that some patients could react negatively to the experience and then avoid the drug, or react positively and want to repeatedly use it, potentially leading to a drug-use disorder. Experts on the FDA panel said no misuse or abuse was seen in Johnson & Johnson’s clinical trials, however, adding that they considered the risk of abuse among adults to be low.

Read more: A ‘party drug’ with potential to be the next blockbuster antidepressant is edging closer to the mainstream, but it could set you back $9,000

Johnson & Johnson’s nasal spray for depression

Johnson & Johnson’s formulation of esketamine is designed to be taken as a nasal spray alongside a traditional antidepressant, reducing the time required to administer the treatment and potentially making it less expensive. (The company has not said how much the drug could cost.)

The company’s clinical-trial data suggests that the drug is fairly safe and well tolerated but still has some negative side effects.

More than a third of patients in two of Johnson & Johnson’s last-phase clinical trials reported dissociation. To address that, researchers say, the drug should be given in the presence of a clinician who can monitor the person for at least two hours after treatment. Roughly a third of patients in the trials reported dizziness, sedation, or nausea.

Also, because the studies focused on people with severe forms of depression that don’t respond to other medications, suicide was a known risk among the participants. In Johnson & Johnson’s trials, at least three patients died by suicide. On Tuesday, experts said these deaths were not likely a direct result of esketamine — if anything, they could have occurred because it didn’t work well enough, said Qi Chen, an FDA safety reviewer on the panel.

Julie Zito, a pharmacy professor at the University of Maryland who was one of two people who voted against esketamine’s effectiveness, said she didn’t see enough evidence of substantial improvement in mood among the clinical-trial participants.

Other researchers on the FDA panel said the drug still appeared to be more convenient than available antidepressants and the IV version of esketamine because the nasal spray doesn’t require an IV and could be given as frequently as once a week.

Esketamine also appeared to work better than a placebo in people with severe forms of depression over a month. However, the latest clinical trial — one of five studies presented to the FDA — was not able to show that the drug was statistically superior to a placebo. That’s a key finding that other trials appeared to support.

For a study published last May, Johnson & Johnson’s neuroscience partner, Janssen Research, had nearly 240 adults with severe depression take a traditional antidepressant plus a nasal spray for a month. Half got a spray with Johnson & Johnson’s drug, while the other half got a placebo spray. Those results were promising: The people who got the esketamine spray saw significantly better improvements in their depressive symptoms than those who got the placebo.

The month before, researchers did a small, daylong version of the study and came away with similar results. But the latest study, of nearly 350 adults, did not show numbers statistically significant enough to bolster the other findings.

Nevertheless, most of the experts on the FDA-assembled committee said they considered the drug an effective treatment for severe depression. Some said the latest study still suggested positive results even though the findings didn’t reach statistical significance.

"I was persuaded not only by the two positive trials but even by the partial evidence in the third trial that was at least pointing in the same direction," Wilson Compton, the deputy director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse with the National Institutes of Health, said on Tuesday.

SEE ALSO: A ‘party drug’ with potential to be the next blockbuster antidepressant is edging closer to the mainstream, but it could set you back $9,000

DON’T MISS: Pharma giants are looking to ketamine for clues to the next blockbuster depression drug — and science says they’re onto something big

Join the conversation about this story »

NOW WATCH: There are serious health reasons why you shouldn’t eat your boogers

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A Majestic Rare Black Leopard Was Photographed In Africa For The First Time In 100 Years And It Looks Metal AF

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iStockphoto / Mateja Gornik

An extremely rare black leopard was photographed underneath the full moon in Laikipia Wilderness Camp in Kenya by wildlife photographer Will Burrard-Lucas. These creatures are so rare at this point that they’ve achieved an almost mythical status in Africa. One hadn’t been properly photographed in 100 years until now.

The black coat is caused by melanism, the opposite of albinism, and unlike albinism that leaves an animal exposed to predators 24/7/365 because it doesn’t have any natural camouflage, melanism and the dark coat actually makes these some of the best predators on the planet because they can navigate the night virtually undetected.

Black leopards haven’t been unseen in Africa for 100 years, there just hasn’t been a photographer lucky enough to capture a proper photograph of them in a century. After reports that several were spotted in Kenya’s Laikipia area, photographer Will Burrard-Lucas set up his an expedition, according to the Daily Mail. What resulted was these absolutely stunning photographs.

By setting up a motion-activated camera underneath the full moonlight the photographer was able to capture the first photographs of a black leopard in 100 years and they are truly stunning. The eyes on this creature are enormous and set to full-alert for prey.

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He also captured this stunning image of a normal leopard.

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Previous photographs of any black leopards in Africa were either extremely grainy or caught the animal in motion. Similar to pictures you’d expect to see of a Yeti or Chupacabra. This is the first time in a century that a photographer managed to capture hi-res close-up photos of a black leopard.

According to the Daily Mail, Burrard-Lucas installed the DSLR ‘camera traps’ while working with biologists from the San Diego Zoo who were working in the area and helped the photographer map out the best locations to ‘catch’ the majestic predator based on reports of where it had been seen.

Burrard-Lucas documented his expedition on a blog post on his website which you can check out by clicking that link but I think his site’s down at the moment from receiving too much traffic because I can’t seem to get the post to load.

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Xnor’s saltine-sized, solar-powered AI hardware redefines the edge

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“If AI is so easy, why isn’t there any in this room?” asks Ali Farhadi, founder and CEO of Xnor, gesturing around the conference room overlooking Lake Union in Seattle. And it’s true — despite a handful of displays, phones and other gadgets, the only things really capable of doing any kind of AI-type work are the phones each of us have set on the table. Yet we are always hearing about how AI is so accessible now, so flexible, so ubiquitous.

And in many cases, even those devices that can aren’t employing machine learning techniques themselves, but rather sending data off to the cloud where it can be done more efficiently. Because the processes that make up “AI” are often resource-intensive, sucking up CPU time and battery power.

That’s the problem Xnor aimed to solve, or at least mitigate, when it spun off from the Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence in 2017. Its breakthrough was to make the execution of deep learning models on edge devices so efficient that a $5 Raspberry Pi Zero could perform state of the art computer vision processes nearly as well as a supercomputer.

The team achieved that, and Xnor’s hyper-efficient ML models are now integrated into a variety of devices and businesses. As a follow-up, the team set their sights higher — or lower, depending on your perspective.

Answering his own question on the dearth of AI-enabled devices, Farhadi pointed to the battery pack in the demo gadget they made to show off the Pi Zero platform and explained: “This thing right here. Power.”

Power was the bottleneck they overcame to get AI onto CPU- and power-limited devices like phones and the Pi Zero. So the team came up with a crazy goal: Why not make an AI platform that doesn’t need a battery at all? Less than a year later, they’d done it.

That thing right there performs a serious computer vision task in real time: It can detect in a fraction of a second whether and where a person, or car, or bird, or whatever, is in its field of view, and relay that information wirelessly. And it does this using the kind of power usually associated with solar-powered calculators.

The device Farhadi and hardware engineering head Saman Naderiparizi showed me is very simple — and necessarily so. A tiny camera with a 320×240 resolution, an FPGA loaded with the object recognition model, a bit of memory to handle the image and camera software and a small solar cell. A very simple wireless setup lets it send and receive data at a very modest rate.

“This thing has no power. It’s a two-dollar computer with an uber-crappy camera, and it can run state of the art object recognition,” enthused Farhadi, clearly more than pleased with what the Xnor team has created.

For reference, this video from the company’s debut shows the kind of work it’s doing inside:

As long as the cell is in any kind of significant light, it will power the image processor and object recognition algorithm. It needs about a hundred millivolts coming in to work, though at lower levels it could just snap images less often.

It can run on that current alone, but of course it’s impractical to not have some kind of energy storage; to that end this demo device has a supercapacitor that stores enough energy to keep it going all night, or just when its light source is obscured.

As a demonstration of its efficiency, let’s say you did decide to equip it with, say, a watch battery. Naderiparizi said it could probably run on that at one frame per second for more than 30 years.

Not a product

Of course the breakthrough isn’t really that there’s now a solar-powered smart camera. That could be useful, sure, but it’s not really what’s worth crowing about here. It’s the fact that a sophisticated deep learning model can run on a computer that costs pennies and uses less power than your phone does when it’s asleep.

“This isn’t a product,” Farhadi said of the tiny hardware platform. “It’s an enabler.”

The energy necessary for performing inference processes such as facial recognition, natural language processing and so on put hard limits on what can be done with them. A smart light bulb that turns on when you ask it to isn’t really a smart light bulb. It’s a board in a light bulb enclosure that relays your voice to a hub and probably a data center somewhere, which analyzes what you say and returns a result, turning the light on.

That’s not only convoluted, but it introduces latency and a whole spectrum of places where the process could break or be attacked. And meanwhile it requires a constant source of power or a battery!

On the other hand, imagine a camera you stick into a house plant’s pot, or stick to a wall, or set on top of the bookcase, or anything. This camera requires no more power than some light shining on it; it can recognize voice commands and analyze imagery without touching the cloud at all; it can’t really be hacked because it barely has an input at all; and its components cost maybe $10.

Only one of these things can be truly ubiquitous. Only the latter can scale to billions of devices without requiring immense investment in infrastructure.

And honestly, the latter sounds like a better bet for a ton of applications where there’s a question of privacy or latency. Would you rather have a baby monitor that streams its images to a cloud server where it’s monitored for movement? Or a baby monitor that absent an internet connection can still tell you if the kid is up and about? If they both work pretty well, the latter seems like the obvious choice. And that’s the case for numerous consumer applications.

Amazingly, the power cost of the platform isn’t anywhere near bottoming out. The FPGA used to do the computing on this demo unit isn’t particularly efficient for the processing power it provides. If they had a custom chip baked in, they could get another order of magnitude or two out of it, lowering the work cost for inference to the level of microjoules. The size is more limited by the optics of the camera and the size of the antenna, which must have certain dimensions to transmit and receive radio signals.

And again, this isn’t about selling a million of these particular little widgets. As Xnor has done already with its clients, the platform and software that runs on it can be customized for individual projects or hardware. One even wanted a model to run on MIPS — so now it does.

By drastically lowering the power and space required to run a self-contained inference engine, entirely new product categories can be created. Will they be creepy? Probably. But at least they won’t have to phone home.

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Opportunity Mars rover goes to its last rest after extraordinary 14-year mission

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Opportunity, one of two rovers sent to Mars in 2004, is officially offline for good, NASA and JPL officials announced today at a special press conference. “I declare the Opportunity mission as complete, and with it the Mars Exploration Rover mission as complete,” said NASA’s Thomas Zurbuchen.

The cause of Opportunity’s demise was a planet-scale sandstorm that obscured its solar panels too completely, and for too long, for its onboard power supply to survive and keep even its most elementary components running. It last communicated on June 10, 2018, but could easily have lasted a few months more as its batteries ran down — a sad picture to be sure. Even a rover designed for the harsh Martian climate can’t handle being trapped under a cake of dust at -100 degrees Celsius for long.

The team has been trying to reach it for months, employing a variety of increasingly desperate techniques to get the rover to at least respond; even if its memory had been wiped clean or instruments knocked out, it could be reprogrammed and refreshed to continue service if only they could set up a bit of radio rapport. But every attempt, from ordinary contact methods to “sweep and beep” ploys, was met with silence. The final transmission from mission control was last night.

Spirit and Opportunity, known together as the Mars Exploration Rovers mission, were launched individually in the summer of 2003 and touched down in January of 2004 — 15 years ago! — in different regions of the planet.

Each was equipped with a panoramic camera, a macro camera, spectrometers for identifying rocks and minerals and a little drill for taking samples. The goal was to operate for 90 days, traveling about 40 meters each day and ultimately covering about a kilometer. Both exceeded those goals by incredible amounts.

Spirit ended up traveling about 7.7 kilometers and lasting about 7 years. But Opportunity outshone its twin, going some 45 kilometers over 14 years — well over a marathon.

And of course both rovers contributed immensely to our knowledge of the Red Planet. It was experiments by these guys that really established a past when Mars not only had water, but bio-friendly liquid water that might have supported life.

Opportunity did a lot of science but always had time for a selfie, such as this one at the edge of Erebus Crater.

It’s always sad when a hard-working craft or robot finally shuts down for good, especially when it’s one that’s been as successful as “Oppy.” The Cassini probe went out in a blaze of glory, and Kepler has quietly gone to sleep. But ultimately these platforms are instruments of science and we should celebrate their extraordinary success as well as mourn their inevitable final days.

“Spirit and Opportunity may be gone, but they leave us a legacy — a new paradigm for solar system exploration,” said JPL head Michael Watkins. “That legacy continues not just in the Curiosity rover, which is currently operating healthily after about 2,300 days on the surface of Mars. But also in our new 2020 rover, which is under construction here at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.”

“But Spirit and Opportunity did something more than that,” he continued. “They energized the public about the spirit of robotic Mars exploration. The infectious energy and electricity that this mission created was obvious to the public.”

Mars of course is not suddenly without a tenant. The Insight lander touched down last year and has been meticulously setting up its little laboratory and testing its systems. And the Mars 2020 rover is well on its way to launch. It’s a popular planet.

Perhaps some day we’ll scoop up these faithful servants and put them in a Martian museum. For now, let’s look forward to the next mission.

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Ending my fastlane chapter

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I’ve built and published iOS apps for over 8 years now. Back then the App Store review times were over 2 weeks, iTunes Connect would allow only uploads of a single screenshot at a time, there was no CocoaPods… and code signing was pretty much the same as it is today.

In 2014, I sat in my dorm room and started working on a tool to solve some of the challenges I faced as an iOS developer. It started out by just automating the upload of screenshots and binaries to iTunes Connect. After publishing the initial version in November 2014, the iOS community seemed excited about it. It slowly went from just deliver, to more tools like snapshot to generate the screenshots and pem to automate iOS push notifications.

Fast-forward to today, I’m so humbled by what fastlane has grown to be. It has changed the way large iOS teams work every day, how they release their app updates, and how code signing works. It even enabled founders to start new businesses using fastlane as their core foundation.

I’m so proud to see how the community has grown around it. When fastlane initially launched, it supported only 10 integrations. Today there are over 570 different integrations, from code coverage reports, beta testing services to build version management. All of this wouldn’t have been possible without the all the 922 contributors of the fastlane main code base, all the authors of the 355 third party plugins, as well as the fastlane core contributor team.

It was great to see fastlane evolving from a small side project, into a stable, self-sustainable open source project with a strong community of contributors around it. I have no doubts that fastlane will continue growing stronger in the next years, with the support of Google, as well as other companies and individual contributors.

📯 After 4.5 years it’s time for me to step away from fastlane, and with that leave Google.

As for what’s next, I don’t have any specific plans yet. I’ll be taking a vacation and then figuring out what problem I’m excited to solve next 🙂

As always, you can stay in touch on Twitter and Instagram.

What does it mean for fastlane?

Google will keep investing in fastlane. There will be no changes to fastlane and its support system. To get help with fastlane, submit an issue on GitHub. At the same time, we will continue accepting new fastlane core contributors, meaning you can get full push access to the fastlane code base.

Thank you

I’d like to thank everyone from the Twitter Fabric, Firebase and Google Cloud teams for taking fastlane where it is today. I’d like to specifically call out all the contributors and the iOS community for welcoming fastlane and continuing to support it. In particular Hemal who believed in my vision and helped me grow personally and professionally.

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